Play Is The Work of the Child 玩耍是孩子的工作

Submitted by Nicca on Wed, 10/19/2011 - 14:07

Ref: Child Development Institute
玩耍對孩子和青少年的健康發展是不可或缺的。 孩子從事活動不僅激勵還影響神經細胞之間的連結。 這個過程影響著運動神經、 語言、 社交、 自覺、 情緒安好、 創造力、 解決問題及學習能力的微妙和茂密發展。

玩耍扮演著幫助孩子主動、 做決定和練習支配的最重要角色。 他們應該體驗廣泛種類的內容, 如: 美術、 音樂、 語言、 科學、 數學、 社交關係, 因為在複雜連結和完整的大腦發
展, 每一個都很重要。 玩耍連結了感覺運動、 認知和社交情緒的經驗, 提供大腦發展一個理想的環境。

根據蒙特梭利, 玩耍的必要範圍包含了:

1. 自願的、 有樂趣的、 有目的的和自發的。
2. 創造力延伸在運用解決問題的技巧、 社交技巧、 語言技巧和體能技巧上。
3. 幫助延伸新的想法。
4. 幫助孩子在社交方面的適應。
5. 幫助阻撓情緒問題。

如果玩耍對孩子來說是項工作, 玩具就是工具。 透過玩具, 孩子學關於他們自己世界和其他人的事物。 玩具教噵孩子:

1. 理解出事情如何操作。
2. 學到新的觀念。
3. 建立肌肉控制和力量。
4. 運用他們的想像力。
5. 解決問題。
6. 學習和其他人合作。


不幸地, 現今孩子的玩耍經驗常和他們的父母不一樣。 電子媒體延伸的影響, 如電視、 錄影帶、 電動遊戲和網路, 孩子花了很多自己的時間被動的被娛樂, 或是最低限度地以鍵盤或控制墊的電子設備互動。 縱使今天的玩具常是以指定玩樂經驗的交通工具上的電腦來架構, 這剝奪了孩子和其他孩子組織性的玩耍, 和花費時間在獨自玩樂上富創造力的玩耍。 父母需要了解他們孩子的玩樂和供給和滿足其他需求的環境。


Play activities are essential to healthy development for children and adolescents. The activities engaged in by children both stimulate and influence the pattern of the connections made between the nerve cells. This process influences the development of fine and gross motor skills, language, socialization, personal awareness, emotional well-being, creativity, problem solving and learning ability.

The most important role that play can have is to help children to be active, make choices and practice actions to mastery. They should have experience with a wide variety of content (art, music, language, science, math, social relations) because each is important for the development of a complex and integrated brain. Play that links sensori-motor, cognitive, and social-emotional experiences provides an ideal setting from brain development.

According to Montessori, the essential dimensions of play are:

* Voluntary, enjoyable, purposeful and spontaneous
* Creativity expanded using problem solving skills, social skills, language skills and physical skills
* Helps expand on new ideas
* Helps the child to adapt socially
* Helps to thwart emotional problems

If play is the work of the child, toys are the tools. Through toys, children learn about their world, themselves, and others. Toys teach children to:

* Figure out how things work
* Pick up new ideas
* Build muscle control and strength
* Use their imagination
* Solve problems
* Learn to cooperate with others

Play content should come from the child’s own imagination and experiences.

Unfortunately, the play experience for today’s child is often quite different from that of their parents.

With the ever expanding influence of electronic media including TV, videos, video games and the internet, child are spending much of their time being passively entertained by or minimally interacting by way of a keyboard or control pad with an electronic device.

Even today’s toys are more often structured by onboard computers that dictate the play experience. This robs children of unstructured play with other kids as well as individual playtime spent in creative play. Parents need to understand the play needs of their child and provide an environment to meet those needs.